So bridge and tunnel
The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel connects the city of Hampton on the Virginia Peninsula with the City of Norfolk. Its 3.5 mile length is divided into two lengths of bridge and a tunnel in the middle.
The middle tunnel section is to open up a vital shipping lane which includes traffic from many critical ports and shipyard, including Naval Station Norfolk.
While a drawbridge would be less expensive in the event of a disaster or wartime, its destruction could block the shipping channel. A tunnel is far less likely to interfere with safe navigation under any circumstances.
40 Principles – disambiguation
This is a great example of Principle 1 – Segmentation and Principle 3 – Local Quality because it uses different construction along its length for different purposes. The bridge sections are less expensive, but the tunnel section has broader military advantages.
Undoubtedly segmentation is at play, because the road is divided on its length. However, I would say innovation here is predominantly local quality, as imbuing a system with heterogeneous characteristics requires segmentation but the goal is giving different qualities to localized areas.
Local quality is the innovation that provides the necessary benefit. Segmentation is the mechanism that permits local quality.
This is distinct from a classic segmentation example, the egg container, which is segmented, but the segments do not differ in terms of local quality.